Welcome Reception

Opening Ceremony
Session:Innovations in animal production
Chairpersons - Andrzej Sośnicki (USA), Wiesław Przybylski (Poland)
Animal production is an important aspect of the influence of animal handling on meat quality and has been well-known for many years. And yet, improvements may always be made, and many problems solved.  This session will cover innovative solutions and new findings related to animal production. Topics include animal breeding and nutrition, animal genetics and genomics, automation in animal production and novel methods of production.
Applied genomics in meat science: where we are and where we may go
Luca Fontanesi (Italy)
Applied genomics in meat science: where we are and where we may go

Prof. Luca Fontanesi
Department of Agricultural and Food Sciences, Division of Animal Sciences, Bologna, Italy

Genomics has been revolutionizing all biological sciences and many applied disciplines. This review will go through the past, present and future applications in meat science. High-throughput sequencing and genotyping technologies have been applied in meat science for different purposes and from different perspectives. Most livestock species, including meat species, have an assembled and annotated reference genome, an essential tool for the construction of subsequent applications in several directions. Improvement of these resources are now needed to fill assembly gaps and to provide a second-generation annotation layout including additional features, like regulatory regions. Pangenome initiatives are increasing the value of these resources. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) carried out within breeds or populations are used to identify genomic regions affecting meat quality and production traits and novel molecular phenotypes directly or indirectly correlated with meat related traits. These studies are substituting classical genetic studies based on reference populations and families for the identification of quantitative trait loci. GWAS results are combined with population genomic analyses across breeds, including autochthonous genetic resources, to identify signatures of selection that can be used to identify genomic regions explaining the variability of relevant traits for meat production and adaptation to peculiar production systems. The identification of many new causative mutations affecting the targeted traits in all meat species is expected with the combination of statistical approaches, next generation sequencing data and validation studies. Genomic selection, with some adjustments, is becoming a routine system in the breeding programs of the main meat species. Next generation sequencing is applied for gene expression analyses useful to evaluate the effect on muscles and other animal tissues of different feeding regimes, treatments and challenges, changing the way to monitor physiological aspects and their biological-relevant relationships. Genomics is also paving the way for the development of novel approaches in traceability and authenticity of meat products with the possibility to develop novel claims that can also support the conservation of local breeds. Genome editing of meat animals constitutes a challenging new frontier with the potential to increase meat quantity and quality and, at the same time, to reduce the ecological footprint of meat production.

Lecture Partner: PIC

Coffee break
Session:Animal welfare vs human welfare
- Brandon Fields (USA), Maria Font y Furnols (Spain)
Healthy animals equal better meat products. Although this might sound simple, maintaining animal health throughout its life is not a simple task.  There is an ongoing discussion whether humans have the right to kill animals, and if we do - how animals should be treated. Various solutions have been proposed for maintenance and slaughterhouses depending on animal species. There is still much to be improved. Animal conditions, disease treatment, a compromise between profits as well as animal welfare and many other related aspects will be discussed in this session.However, there are people working with animals: on farms and in slaughterhouses. At times, it is difficult to comprehend their behaviour. Is there any way to change negative attitudes? Should we concentrate more on human psychology and training, which could be translated to human actions?
Secrecy, silence and denial? Challenging the stigma of "dirty work" in the meat industry
Lindsay Hamilton (United Kingdom)
Secrecy, silence and denial? Challenging the stigma of 'dirty work' in the meat industry

Dr Lindsay Hamilton
The York Management School, University of York, UK

Meat work has often been tainted with the label of 'dirty work'. Those who work in slaughtering and production are sometimes critiqued as unemotional and even violent workers who engage in mass-scale 'killing'.  The stigma facing those who work in this industry has been exacerbated by factors such as low pay, repetitive and mechanical tasks, short term and agency contracts which have further 'dehumanised' the labour process. Recent years have been especially difficult for those employed in the meat industry as outbreaks of covid-19 have been publicized across Europe, and widely linked to working and living conditions. Union spokespeople often claim that fear of redundancy prevents meat workers from voicing their concerns about such factors. All this emerges against a backdrop of upheaval in Europe, as the regulation of the import and export of animal products is creating new tasks and requirements for processing plants. Rather than setting out the considerable challenges facing the meat industry as a commercial sector, however, this presentation seeks to explore some of the pressures and tensions in the lived experience of meat workers, and sets them into context against the backdrop of increasingly polarised contemporary debates within food and business ethics. The taint of 'dirty work' is powerful, not least because for many consumers the act of slaughter is unpalatable but I argue that it can be challenged - to the benefit of meat workers - by reducing the secrecy and silence surrounding meat production.
Influence of African Swine Fever on pig and pork production in Poland and Europe
Zygmunt Pejsak (Poland)
Influence of African Swine Fever on pig and pork production in Poland and Europe

Prof. Zygmunt Pejsak
University Centre of Veterinary Medicine JU -AU, Krakow, Poland

Currently, African swine fever (ASF) represents the most important swine epizootics in Europe, Russia, and Asia. This disease has a significant impact on the profitability of pig production, triggered mainly by restrictions influencing the international trade in animals and meat of pork origin. ASF has been officially controlled and compulsorily notifiable by the International Organization for Animal Health (OIE).
Europe is a second largest pork producer with over 186 millions of swine. The proportion of world meat consumption equals to 40% of pork, 29% of chicken, 24% of beef, and 7% of other species. Therefore, the factors influencing production, profitability, and sustainability – like ASF are of crucial importance in providing the sufficient work outcome to the local and international markets.
The observed fluctuation in the number of produced pigs, in several countries is related to the lack of profit in production, during last 7 years mainly due to the occurrence of ASF. Considering the influence of ASF in European countries, pork production was surprisingly maintained at a constant level and reached 22,847 thousand tones in 2016 and over 23,175 thousand tones in 2020. The most noticeable decrease in pork production has been identified in Germany and reached 4.2% in comparison between 2016 and 2020. The more considerable impact of ASF epizootics has been observed temporarily in China, where production at the same reporting period decreased by over 20%. The observed fluctuations in pig production are pointed out by the underestimation of factors related to ASF emergence in any region of the world. Since there is no effective vaccine against ASF, the only way to limit the influence of its emergence is the strict implementation of biosecurity measures at all levels and kinds of swine production. The limitations in profitability, in many countries are mainly caused by the lack of profit in swine production due to non - efficient production, among others, due to the occurrence of different infectious diseases, including ASF, or administrative procedures.
In conclusion, it might be stated that in spite of the ASF emergence in Eastern and Southern Europe international fluctuations in pig production are not as high as we expected.
Short presentations- Innovations in animal production and Animal welfare vs human welfare
Chairpersons - Monika Modzelewska-Kapituła (Poland), Małgorzata Darewicz (Poland)
  • Muscle content of pork carcasses and cuts as influenced by restricted feeding or amino acid deficiency -
    Gerard Daumas(France)
  • AI enhanced Precision Livestock Farming (PLF) is the next step in farm animal management for optimal productivity and animal welfare - Dorte Schrøder-Petersen (Denmark)
  • Influences of grazing intensity on behavioural reactivity, pre-slaughter physiology and meat characteristics in horned beef heifers - Anna-Maria Reiche (Switzerland)
  •  Importance of marbling for the prediction of beef eating quality in France and Europe - Jingjing Liu (France)
Coffee break
Session: Animal Tissue Biology
Chairpersons - David Gerrard (USA), Eero Puolanne (Finland)
Basic studies on muscle tissue biology are the foundation for understanding and the ability to manipulate all aspects of meat quality. Despite decades of research on the topic and dozens of milestone discoveries, there is still so much to be learnt. Modern analytic tools allow to determine more. Due to many changes in animal production, some of the basics have changed and it is sometimes difficult to apply already-known knowledge about tissues. The topics covered in this session include all new studies related to the biology of animal tissues, whether it be muscle, blood or tendon tissue. Novel findings related to animal tissues of various origins such as slaughter animals, game, fish, sea food and insects, will be discussed in this section.
Insights on meat quality from combining traditional studies and proteomics
Peter Purslow (Argentina)
Insights on meat quality from combining traditional studies and proteomics

Prof. Peter Purslow
Tandil Centre for Veterinary Investigation (CIVETAN), National University of Central Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

A century of research into meat qualities such as water-holding, colour and tenderness has yielded a broad understanding of the major structural and molecular mechanisms affecting variations in these properties. In the twenty-first century, the emphasis of research has shifted towards understanding the interactions of multiple factors affecting meat quality.

Research into the effects of complex and interactive factors is increasingly being based on data-driven approaches such as transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics. This presentation uses two recent proteomics meta-analyses on beef colour and tenderness to demonstrate how data-driven approaches can extend our understanding of the mechanisms and factors underlying variations in these meat qualities. This highlights the role of postmortem energy metabolism in setting the conditions for development of meat colour and tenderness. A pattern of interplay between pathways of calcium regulation, energy metabolism, and mitochondrial metabolism can also be discerned from the complex data.

We also examine why proteomics seems to overlook some sources of variations in beef toughness, and examine the difference between hypothesis-driven and data driven approaches. We conclude be emphasising that post-hoc explanations from data-driven studies of why certain proteins are biomarkers of beef quality using proteomics need to be tested and confirmed confirmation by further hypothesis-driven experimental studies.

Dark-cutting beef: a glance on the first repertoire of biomarkers and an integromics meta-analysis at the proteome level to decipher the underlying pathways
Mohammed Gagaoua (Ireland)
Dark-cutting beef: a glance on the first repertoire of biomarkers and an integromics meta-analysis at the proteome level to decipher the underlying pathways

Mohammed Gagaoua, PhD
Teagasc Food Research Centre, Ashtown, Dublin 15, Ireland

Comprehensive characterization of the post-mortem muscle proteome defines a fundamental goal in meat proteomics. During the last decade, proteomic tools have been applied in the field of foodomics to help decipher factors underpinning meat quality variations and to enlighten us, through data-driven methods, on the underlying mechanisms leading to meat quality defects such as dark-cutting meat known also as Dark, Firm and Dry (DFD) meat. In cattle, several proteomics studies have focused on the extent to which changes in the post-mortem muscle proteome relate to dark-cutting beef development. The present data-mining study firstly reviews proteomics studies which investigated dark-cutting beef, and secondly, gathers the protein biomarkers that differ between dark-cutting versus beef with normal-pH in a unique repertoire. A list of 130 proteins from eight eligible studies was curated and mined through bioinformatics for Gene Ontology annotations, molecular pathways enrichments, secretome analysis and biological pathways comparisons to normal beef color from a previous meta-analysis. The major biological pathways underpinning dark-cutting beef at the proteome level have been described and deeply discussed. This integromics meta-analysis of publicly available proteomics data revealed strong disparity among dark-cutting beef studies. In this article, we further reviewed the main causes of dark-cutting beef, the effect of high pH on the color of meat, and the new insights of muscle biology on dark-cutting beef.

Short presentations Animal Tissue Biology
  • Nitrogen content in pectoralis major muscle from Ross 308 broilers with or without wooden breast - Marven Hviid (Denmark)
  • Biochemical and textural changes in beef from bulls and steers of different crossbreeds shortly after slaughter and during ageing - Monika Modzelewska-Kapituła (Poland)
Social Event: BBQ
BBQ Partner: PIC

Location: University of Agriculture in Kraków
Balicka 122 street, Kraków

Session: Nutritional quality of meat, meat analogues and the available alternatives
- Stanisław Gwiazda (Poland), Edward Pospiech (Poland)
The role of meat in human nutrition seems to be indisputable. However, it began to be under strict debate. On the one hand, meat is known as one of the best sources of many different nutrients and is one of the essential products in human diet, with many researchers implicating problems related to meat consumption avoidance. On the other, there is a growing number of research marking meat consumption as potentially hazardous. This session will include novel findings related to both sides of this debate.
There is a growing interest in meat avoidance. The search for alternatives of meat products are diverse does not change the fact that new alternatives are being sought out and demanded by the consumers. Congress will cover new findings and insights regarding meat alternatives from other animal sources, such as insects, and from sources of plant origin. This will include improved or novel processing methods, nutritional quality, safety and absorption aspects or comparison between meat and its analogues.
Scientific, Medical and Regulatory Landscape of Alternative Dietary Proteins
Roger Clemens (USA)
Peter Pressman (USA)
Scientific, Medical and Regulatory Landscape of Alternative Dietary Proteins

Roger Clemens, DrPH – USC School of Pharmacy, Los Angeles, CA USA

Peter Pressman, MD – Polyscience Consulting, Chatsworth, CA USA

The protein alternatives market is witnessing a shift in consumer demand from animal protein to plant protein. The global protein alternatives market is projected to register a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 7.4% by 2027. This inclination toward a plant-based diet is associated with different factors, such as sustainability issues, health awareness, ethical or religious views, environmental concerns and animal welfare.
The global protein alternatives market is segmented by the source that includes plant protein (including grains and legumes), mycoprotein, algal protein, insect protein, oil seed meal, and in vitro or cultured protein. There are several challenges associated with these alternative dietary proteins. Assuring public health and product safety are among those challenges. While the spectrum of alternative dietary proteins is alluring, the quality and digestibility of these sources are markedly less than that of traditional animal-based proteins. The traditional dietary protein assessment methods, including PER, PDCAAS, and DIAAS do not account for non-protein nitrogen, which may exceed 50% of the total nitrogen in alternative protein sources. Thus, product labeling for protein content is misleading and untruthful.
A critical review of the amino acid profiles and their bioavailability suggest these sources may not be appropriate for underserved populations and the malnourished. Malnutrition is responsible for more ill-health than any other cause, and is accountable for about 45% of deaths among children under five.
Animals have an innate immune system that protects them against most infections, including normal viral exposures (the current pandemic and influenzas, notwithstanding). However, plants, which harbor an array of viruses, do not have such an immune defense mechanism. For example, Acheta domesticus is highly susceptible to densoviruses that impact in last instar and young adults, and potentially infect the cricket colony and devastate industry. These viruses are found in mosquitos and oysters as well, which may transmit the virus vertically to humans if there are insufficient controls and monitoring. Similarly, flaviviruses, primarily found in arthropods, have been detected in an array of wildlife and insects. These and other reservoirs of potential viral pathogens trigger zoonotic concerns for public health that deserve greater attention to product specifications and safety surveillance.
Some researchers in the alternative protein arena suggest plant-based, microorganism- and animal cell-based alternatives to animal meat, fish, eggs, and dairy will make up at least 11% of global protein consumption in 2035 and 22% of the alternative protein market. To assure product safety and to consider public health, regulatory agencies must carefully consider the variety of novel and emerging technologies and resources required. As the global community appears to embrace some technologies pertinent to the future of foods that are impacted by demographic and demand shifts, environmental footprints, and agricultural dynamics, one must focus on the priority of assure a food supply that is safe, nutritious, accessible, and affordable.
Session: Bioactive compounds from and for meat
- Stanisław Gwiazda (Poland), Edward Pospiech (Poland)
Meat and its by-products are a source of many valuable nutrients while being a natural source of bioactive compounds. Meat products can be modified to not only be a source of vitamins and minerals but also various polyphenols, bioactive peptides, polysaccharides and a vast number of compounds, all of which exhibit potent biological activity. Those are in high demand by the pharmaceutical industry and for the production of food supplements as well as functional food products. Therefore, this subject includes identification, analysis, extraction and optimisation of obtaining bioactives from meat sources. It also covers the use of those compounds in novelty food development or to improve quality, to increase the shelf-life of existing products or to add health promoting properties. Research including interactions between added bioactives and other native meat constituents, as well as safety analysis and other aspects related to meat additives, is necessary. On the other hand, studies on products induce real impact on human health are a fascinating part of this subject.
Bioactivities generated from meat proteins by enzymatic hydrolysis and the Maillard reaction
Keizo Arihara (Japan)
Bioactivities Generated from Meat Proteins by Enzymatic Hydrolysis and the Maillard Reaction

Prof. Keizo Arihara
Kitasato University, Japan

Bioactive peptides are released from meat proteins by enzymatic hydrolysis (i.e., gastrointestinal digestion, aging/storage, fermentation, and protease treatment). Such peptides attribute physiological functions to meat and meat products and are promising food ingredients for developing functional foods. Meat by-products (e.g., blood and collagen) are also good sources for generating bioactive peptides, since they are produced in large quantities and are rich in proteins. Although protein-derived bioactive peptides are attractive ingredients, their changes by the Maillard reaction during processing, cooking, and storage should be investigated. This article briefly reviews the production of bioactive peptides from meat and meat by-products. Such diverse peptides affects circulatory, nervous, alimentary, and immune systems. Then, the bioactivities of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) generated from protein hydrolysates are discussed. Special attention is paid to bioactivities of 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone (DMHF) inhalation. As such activities, we have evaluated the impact of DMHF on blood pressure, moods, brainwaves, and dietary intake. Our efforts for understanding various aspects and implication of peptides and MRPs from meat proteins would open new avenues in the meat and food industry.

Coffee break
Debate: The future role of meat science in underpinning a global sustainable meat sector for benefit to society while accelerating innovation
The topics, which will be discussed:
  • Global challenges facing meat scientists and the industry
  • Actions that can mitigate these challenges
  • Delivering the knowledge that already exists
  • Successful models in place.
  • Future leadership in meat science and meat industry
  • The next steps for the organisation of a global initiative
  • The role of ICoMST in supporting this initiative
Poster session
Coffee break
Session: Sustainability in meat processing-waste management and pet food production
Frank Vandendriessche (Belgium), Małgorzata Korzeniowska (Poland)
The meat industry is generating a huge amount of by-products, which are underutilised and waste. This needs to be addressed and handled. However, as it has been demonstrated in recent studies, many of those by-products can be revalorised and reused as a valuable source of many ingredients for which there is an increased demand. The topics covered in this session will include waste revalorisation and management, sustainability and economic viability, the use of novel technologies for waste removal and purification as well as obtaining new ingredients from waste materials. An example of by-products/waste utilisation is pet food production. Pet food is becoming one of the most important branches of the food industry. There is an increasing trend among consumers to treat pet animals more as family members than just companions. This is related, among others, to the high quality pet food purchased. Currently, consumers trends towards pet food are undergoing a similar revolution as observed in the remaining of the meat processing industry. Consumers read food labels, become more interested and demanding. There is also a growing interest in functional pet food products. All of this results in yields of research and novel findings in the given field. The topics covered in this session include improvements in pet food processing, nutritional quality of by-products, functional pet foods, novel palatants and other topics related to pet food production.
Management of meat by-products for an improved meat processing sustainability
Fidel Toldra (Spain)
Management of meat by-products for an improved meat processing sustainability

Prof. Fidel Toldra
Instituto de Agroquimica y Technologia de Alimientos, Spain

Large amounts of meat by-products such as bones, meat trimmings, skin, fatty tissues, horns, hoofs, feet, skull and blood, among other, are generated during slaughtering and meat processing, and must be treated and disposed ecologically. Innovative developments are being performed to give added-value to such by-products and therefore reduce its handling and disposal costs. Proteins and fats obtained through rendering of meat by-products have a wide variety of applications. Some proteins have relevant technological uses for gelation, foaming and emulsification while protein hydrolyzates may contribute to a better digestibility and palatability. Protein hydrolysis also generate added-value products such as bioactive peptides with relevant physiological effects of interest for applications in the food, pet food, pharmaceutical and cosmetics industry. Inedible fats are increasingly used as raw material for the generation of biodiesel. Other applications are focused on the development of new biodegradable plastics that can constitute an alternative to petroleum-based plastics; for instance, by using proteins and fat as raw materials for the production of thermoplastics and polyhydroxyalkanoates, respectively. This paper reviews the latest developments and trends for the valorization of meat by-products as a way to make meat production more sustainable.

Creating value while meeting the challenges of today pet industry: Can alternative sourcing and eco-design be the answer while ensuring pets’ enjoyment?
Aurelie de Ratuld (France)
Creating value while meeting the challenges of today pet industry: Can alternative sourcing and eco-design be the answer while ensuring pets’ enjoyment?

Dr Aurélie DE RATULD
Diana Pet Food, Elven, France

Dogs are omnivorous, cats are strict carnivorous. Can the pet food industry continue to please pets and meet the challenges of a global growing planet? The list of constraints is long: Increase of human population and increase of pet ownership, protein availability, acceleration of governmental Pledges toward climate change and agricultural efforts to be brought to limit Green House Gas emissions, High sustainability standards expected by pet parents, regulatory and sanitary constraints in a world market… all those elements make it complex!

Using the example of palatability enhancers, key ingredients used by pet food manufacturers to allow a good acceptance of pet foods, we will show that several alternatives can exist to offer sustainable solutions within the value chain. Historically founded on circular economy and side stream valorization of the meat Industry, now it comes to go one step ahead.

Eco-design of products, sustained by a strong methodology, is part of the answer. Not all by-products are equivalent in term of footprint nor functionality, and this is strengthened by an industrial strategy consisting in local by-product valorization and proximity to customers. Additionally, alternative sourcing to meat by-products has been investigated: It was shown, that, thanks to a deep knowledge of cats’ and dogs’ sensory drivers, process mastery and analytics, non meat palatants have a potential to please both cats and dogs. Some examples will be given with algae and Insects.

This presentation aims to show that the pet food industry can play an important role in managing conscientiously resources and waste while not compromising ability for future generations to meet their environmental, social and economic needs.

Coctail Party
Location: "Mały Tramwaj" Restaurant
Św. Wawrzyńca 12 street, Kraków

Technical Tours

Session:Meat Processing: from food additives and process optimization to robotics and automation. Emerging technologies in meat processing
- Lars Hinrichsen (Denmark), Ryoichi Sakata (Japan)
This session will cover a broad spectrum of findings related to meat processing. The topics cover a range from problems and improvements connected with single processing steps, leading onto an overall discussion about the meat industry in relation to the Industry 4.0 framework. The research discussed during this session includes new processing methods, food additives and packaging, processing challenges, robotics and automation, the role of management in quality improvement, smart factories and further aspects related to meat processing.
New technologies for food safety and processing are emerging, while existing ones are constantly being re-developed. The rate of advancement tends to be rapid, thus it is important to follow recent progress in this field. The session topic includes a whole range of modern and emerging technologies in meat processing including, but not limited to, recent advancements in nanotechnology, minimal processing technologies, non-thermal preservation, innovations in packaging. Whether your interests are related to cold plasma, UV, ultrasounds, nanoparticles or biopolymer coatings – this session comprises it all.
High Throughput Electro-hydrodynamic Processing for the Protective Encapsulation, Efficient Dosing and Delivery of Bioactives
Jose Maria Lagaron (Spain)
High throughput electro-hydrodynamic processing for the protective encapsulation, efficient dosing and delivery of bioactives

Cristina Prieto1, Emma Talón2, Jose M. Lagaron1
1Novel Materials and Nanotechnologies Laboratory, Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology (IATA), Spanish Council for the Scientific Research (CSIC), Paterna, Spain
2 R&D Department, Bioinicia S.L., Paterna, Spain

One of the most promising approaches to preserve bioactive compounds is their encapsulation within protective matrices. Recent developments in engineering and industrial investment have allowed our research group to develop an innovative encapsulation technique based on the combination of electrohydrodynamic technology and pneumatic atomization process. This novel high-throughput technology, termed as electrospraying assisted by pressurized gas (EAPG) is based on the atomization of the polymer solution by a pneumatic injector using compressed air that nebulizes within a high electric field. During this process, the solvent is evaporated at room temperature in an evaporating chamber and the encapsulated material is collected as a free-flowing powder. This technology is a versatile technique that presents multiple advantages compared to conventional encapsulation techniques. For instance, it is carried out a room temperature, which reduces the denaturation of bioactive compounds, produces particles with high encapsulation efficiency, results in a reduced particle size with narrow size distribution, does not require a subsequent step to separate the particles from the medium, and it is highly versatile in terms of the encapsulating materials and bioactive compounds that can be processed. In addition, by means of this technology it is possible to achieve the production volumes required by commodity food applications.

The current paper will introduce the technology and highlight the most recent advances to offer innovative approaches for the stabilization, shelf-life extension, efficient dosing and controlled delivery of different bioactive compounds.

Keywords: EAPG encapsulation, omega-3, probiotics, polyphenols, functional foods, nutraceuticals.
Acknowledgements: This research was funded by H2020 EU projects CAPSULTEK (reference number 873827) and FODIAC (reference number 773872).
Recent Advances in Robotics and Automation Technology in the Meat Industry
Jamshed Iqbal (United Kingdom)
Recent Advances in Robotics and Automation Technology in the Meat Industry

Dr Jamshed Iqbal
Robotics Department of Computer Science and Technology, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Hull

Emerging developments in automation and allied areas have reshaped various processes in food sector. With an objective to explore opportunities for future applications, this talk highlights the recent avenues of developments in meat robotics. An overview of related up-to-date mechatronic systems and technologies is presented. Factors limiting the widespread commercialisation of automated systems in meat processing are identified. The talk also explores challenges and opportunities of robots to realise objectives of meat industry 4.0. Finally, recommendations are made for sustainable and wide-spread use of robotics in the meat technology.
Coffee break
Session: Meat Processing: from food additives and process optimization to robotics and
automation. Emerging technologies in meat processing - Continuation

Chairpersons - Mohammed Gagaoua (Ireland), Marzena Zając (Poland)
Critical overview of the use of plant antioxidants in the meat industry
Mario Estevez (Spain)
Critical overview of the use of plant antioxidants in the meat industry

Prof. Mario Estevez
IPROCAR Research Institute, University of Extremadura, Spain

The number of articles devoted to study the effect of “natural antioxidants” on meat systems has remarkably increased in the last 10 years. Yet, a critical revision of literature reveals recurrent flaws in regards to the rationale of the application, the experimental design, the characterisation of the plant sources, the discussion of the molecular mechanisms and of the potential benefits. The selection of the appropriate source of these antioxidants and the identification of their bioactive constituents, are essential to understand their mode of action and set effective and safe doses. The methodological approach should also be planned with care as the recorded effects and main conclusions largely depend on the accuracy and specificity of the methods. This article aims to critically review the recent advances in the application of plant antioxidants in meat and meat products and briefly covers current trends of innovative application and future trends.

Short presentations Meat Processing: from food additives and process optimization to robotics and automation. Emerging technologies in meat processing, Nutritional quality of meat, meat analogues
and the available alternatives
  • Search for new sites for predicting the composition of pork cuts - Gerard Daumas (France)
  • Chia seed mucilage as fat replacer in beef patties: Effects of technological properties - Hülya Serpil Kavuşan (Turkey)
  • Effect of added γ-irradiated black pepper (Piper Nigrum) on quality characteristics and shelf – life of mortadella Vladimir Kitanovski (Macedonia)
  • Effect of temperature and cooking time on the toughness of previously tumbled beef cuts - Konan Charles N'gatta (France)
Short presentations Meat Processing: from food additives and process optimization to robotics and automation. Emerging technologies in meat processing
Chairpersons - Aurelie de Ratuld (France), Piotr Kulawik (Poland)
  • Utilization of soybean post-production waste as an antioxidant additive in pork meat formulation - Hana Derbew (Poland)
  • The Effects of Using Arugula Extract or pre-converted Arugula Extract as Nitrite Source in Heat Treated Fermented Sausages - Hülya Serpil Kavuşan (Turkey)
  • Improving the quality of beef from Holstein-Friesian bulls by different marinades - Katarzyna Tkacz (Poland)
  • Hyperspectral Imaging of deboned hams: determination of relevant areas for the prediction of water holding capacity - Antoine Vautier (France)
  • The amino acids profiles of commonly consumed Polish seafood - Wondy Tadele (Poland)
Innovation Hub
  • Use of Three Phase Partitioning to recover enzymes of interest as tenderizing agents of meat - Mohammed Gagaoua (Ireland)
  • Smart Time Temperature Indicator for fresh meat and fish packagings - Vladimir Kitanovski (Macedonia)
Coffee break
Session: Safety and authenticity in meat production
Chairpersons - Luis Patarata (Portugal), Mario Estevez (Spain)
Food safety has always been one of the main concerns of the food industry. To maintain the safety of produced foods we have developed a number of new technologies and control systems which have allowed to drastically improve safety for the consumer. However, when past challenges are overtaken, new ones are always ahead. An example is the emergence of the current COVID-19 pandemic, during which many new protocols and safety measures had to be implemented in order to maintain not only safety of the final consumer, but also to maintain the food supply production chain. Can the meat industry and policymakers prepare themselves for similar situations in the future? Can procedures and systems protect the industry and consumers against bioterrorism? Topics associated with meat safety such as microbiology, allergens, risk analysis, shelf-life, packaging, etc. will be discussed during this session.
Authenticity problems, fraudulence and unfair practices are encountered within the meat industry. This includes various topics: from the accidental addition of undesired or illegal ingredients, to illegal labelling ending with conscious fraudulence of halal or kosher meat products. This session will also cover findings related to innovative monitoring and analysis, incidence reports and preventive measures against fraud.
The Covid-19 pandemic and meat supply chains
Jill Hobbs (Canada)
The Covid-19 pandemic and meat supply chains

Prof. Jill Hobbs
Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of Saskatchewan, Canada

The Covid-19 pandemic has upended societies, economic activity, and business environments. With a focus on the meat processing sector, the presentation considers the short, medium, and potential long-term implications of the pandemic for food supply chains. A series of short-run demand and supply shocks affected the food system. The pandemic has generated a lively discourse around the adaptability and resilience of food supply chains in the medium to longer term. Scale and scope economies in meat processing offer significant cost and efficiency advantages, while a more dispersed industry structure can be more flexible. The pandemic is likely to accelerate the adoption of automation and digitalization within food supply chains. The Covid-19 pandemic also focused consumer attention on the food system and the nature of food supply chains. Consumers’ underlying food values may shape their response to uncertainty during a pandemic. The pandemic offers lessons for the food industry in proactively identifying and addressing points of vulnerability within supply chains.

Short presentations: Safety and authenticity in meat production
  • Shelf life of Pietrain and Duroc pork bellies packed on high-oxygen modified atmosphere - Michela Albano (Spain)
  • Evaluation of antimicrobiological effectiveness of edible biopolymer coatings with bioactive peptides applied on cold stored pork loin - Piotr Kulawik (Poland)
  • DNA-sequencing is the future of microbial process control in the food industry - Lene Meinert (Denmark)
  • The risk of salt reduction in chouriço - a drycured sausage assessed by the influence on
    the survival of Salmonella - Luis Patarata (Portugal)
Gala Dinner
Location: Villa Decius Restaurant
28 Lipca 1943 17A street, Kraków

Session: Traditional meat products
Maria Walczycka (Poland), Władysław Migdał (Poland)
Traditional meat products are valued by customers in every country. The unique character of each region influences the quality of products, which are cultural heritage of each nation. With evolving globalisation, there is a tendency to export this heritage to other countries. Due to that, traditional meat products require special packaging and extended shelf-life. The traditional character of meat products is related to recipes and/or technology. However, some of those products are manufactured using modern technologies which change these products. At the same time, it is possible to obtain greater production batches or healthier products, e.g. with decreased PAHs levels. Consumer attitudes versus modern-traditional products is also an interesting aspect of those changes. The abovementioned topics and others related to traditional meat products will be discussed in this session.
Fermented Meat Products and the Challenge of Their Plant-Based Alternatives: A Comparative Review on Aroma-Related Aspects
Monica Flores (Spain)
Fermented Meat Products and the Challenge of Their Plant-Based Alternatives: A Comparative Review on Aroma-Related Aspects

Prof. Monica Flores
Department of Food Science and Technology, the Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology (IATA) of the Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Valencia, Spain

Traditional fermented meat products are produced around the world due to their convenience and sensory characteristics. Their high acceptability is based on their sensory properties and specially the aroma. They constitute a cultural heritage as seen by the high diversity of products around the world. Recent trends are addressing issues regarding innovation in their formulation by reduction of salt, fat and additives (curing salts). However, the current trend towards a reduction in the consumption of meat products has produced an increase in the formulation of meat product analogues. This trend is the main focus of producers to offer new attractive products to consumers even though the aroma profile of traditional fermented meat products is not reached. In this presentation, the chemistry of aroma formation in traditional fermented meat products in contrast to the potential ability of plant used in meat analogues is presented.

Does traditionality equal quality? An example of European meat products
Michał Halagarda (Poland)
Does traditionality equal quality? An example of European meat products

Michał Halagarda, PhD
Department of Food Commodity Science, Cracow University of Economics, Poland

Meat and meat products are very popular among consumers. They are willingly consumed due to their organoleptic characteristics as well as a common opinion of high nutritional value. Since people nowadays pay more attention to the organoleptic characteristics of consumed foods and also to the general well-being, an increased interest in traditional foods has been observed. Such products have unique characteristics, which they owe to the use of local animals breeds that are mostly fed with traditional forage, old varieties of plants, as well as in most of the cases, natural ingredients. They are also believed to be a healthier alternative to conventional equivalents.

The aim of the study was to analyze the nutritional value, factors affecting quality and health safety of traditional European meat products on the basis of available literature.

The results show that due to the fact that there are many varieties of traditional meat products of different recipes and different processing conditions, not only their organoleptic characteristics is significantly different but also their nutritional value. Reports also indicate that there are some discrepancies which can be attributed to product character (traditional/conventional). They mainly concern the content of moisture, protein, salt and fat, and fatty acid profile. Moreover, research suggests that traditional meat products may also be associated with some health safety issues, such as the presence of pathogens, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nitrate and nitrite residues, N-nitrosamines, biogenic amines and heavy metals. There are also some issues with uniformity of traditional meat products. Products of the same name may differ substantially considering nutritional value and organoleptic characteristics.

Therefore, some actions can be initialized to provide assurance of high quality and uniformity of traditional meat products without compromising their uniqueness. The use of the starter cultures isolated from traditional meat products might be the most effective strategy for reducing biogenic amine content. Reducing the amount of initially added nitrate and/or adding a reducing substance to assure the conversion of nitrite into nitric oxide will help to prevent N-nitrosamine formation. More strict hygienic procedures should limit contamination of products with pathogenic microorganisms. More control over technological procedures as well as greater attention to the quality of raw materials should result in more uniformity and limit presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and and biogenic amines.

Coffee break
Session: Consumer trends and food waste reduction
Declan Troy (Ireland), Michał Halagarda (Poland)
Changes occurring in consumer trends are rapid. The new way the world is organised, with consumers all over the world connected via the Internet and the growing role of “influencers” on social media, forces the meat industry to adapt to the changing and innovate demands of a modern consumer. These trends include clean label, ecological and sustainable food production, concerns about environmental aspects, food technology neophobia, new trends arising at the time of the COVID-19 pandemic and others. One of the most significant arising trends is avoidance of food waste reduction, which is one of the greatest problems, but, at the same time, the biggest opportunities for the food industry. The reduction of wasted food can have huge impact on the environment, but also on the economic situation of food operators and will constitute a platform to discussion in this session.
Meat food waste in the UK households: Using discrete event simulation to provide an evidence base for reducing global food waste
Christian Reynolds (United Kingdom)
Meat food waste in households: Using discrete event simulation to provide an evidence base for reducing global household meat waste

Dr Christian J Reynolds
The Centre for Food Policy, City, University of London, London, United Kingdom

Of the 1.3 billion tonnes of global food loss and waste, meat waste is estimated to be 4%. This is equivalent to ~19% of global meat production, and is linked to much of the greenhouse gas emissions and other environmental impacts related to food loss and waste. One method to reduce the environmental impact of meat is to reduce global food loss and waste. To highlight the global scale of this challenge, this keynote presents the results of a 9 country pilot survey (Brazil, Ghana, India, Kenya, Nigeria, Argentina, Colombia, Peru, and the UK). The results show how different shopping, cooking and packaging options drive household beef and chicken waste. This keynote then proposes possible solutions to reduce household meat waste, including product shelf life extension; changing purchase, consumption, and freezer use behaviour; and packaging and portion size modifications. These interventions have been validated using the household simulation model - a discrete event simulation model that replicates the stages and processes of home food purchase, storage, consumption and disposal. Examples of the scale of household waste reduction impacts are given for Chicken breast and Bacon in the UK.

The use of conventional laboratory-based methods to predict consumer acceptance of beef and sheep meat: A review
Ben Holman (Australia)
The use of conventional laboratory-based methods to predict consumer acceptance of beef and sheep meat: A review

Dr Ben Holman
Centre for Red Meat and Sheep Development, NSW Department of Primary Industries, Australia

Meat scientists often use objective, laboratory-based methods to understand the sensorial properties of red meat. These approaches are advantageous because of their reproducibility, low cost, rapid generation of data and technical ease – comparative to large scale consumer sensory panels. To enhance the value of these methods, effort has been applied to identify specific limits or thresholds that correspond to a consumer’s acceptance or satisfaction with the quality of a meat product. From the literature, we observe there to be inconsistencies in these thresholds. This could stem from disparate laboratory-based methods, consumer panel procedures and demographics, the approach to statistical analysis, sample type and representativeness, and more. This paper aims to review consumer thresholds proposed in the literature, to provide insight into their validity and transferability to other studies. Investigations were limited to red meat (beef and sheep meat) and to non-spectroscopic methods that have been used to predict consumer acceptance of colour, tenderness, juiciness, flavour and overall liking.

Predictors of intention to reduce meat consumption in societies with the opposite trend of meat consumption
Andrzej Szymkowiak (Poland)
Closing ceremony

Honorary Patronage of the Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development

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